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Posted by admin at July 7, 2015

Category: Uncategorized

Communication is an essential aspect of any event. This is because, failure to communicate effectively leads to a lot of misunderstanding and people murmuring all over. This is especially when the issue is sensitive and touching on human life that appears to be endangered in the arms of those who are supposed to take care of it. This leads to lack of trust in such people as the government or police agencies. This paper presents a recent scandal that happened in April 2015, in Baltimore. It involved a twenty-five-year-old Freddie Gray who died in police custody. What stirred up people’s emotions is that this happened just shortly after he was taken into custody. The truth that this was not the initial incidence in Baltimore made citizens furious and they took into the streets to fight for justice.

The residents complained of having suffered from such occurrences frequently as the department of justice was trying to hide some evidence concerning a homicidal misconduct by the law of killing Walter Scott. Whatever reason they killed him no one knows but then the public felt the pain of yet another young souls taken so that the department of justice could hide their heinous plans.

This killing of a person just shortly after being taken into custody pained most of the People and the Media was not left out in covering the story. This story was published on the internet and also in the Baltimore sun magazine. The media, as it is known sparks a broad range of reactions from the public and does not use parables to address issues. Therefore, when the incidence happened, the media covered it making the public take to the streets to demand justice. The agency was wrong in that they first arranged the homicide of Walter Scott, then arrested the wrong person, who was now Freddie Gray. The fact that they knew he was innocent and maybe had some information about what had happened, they decided to eliminate him too so that they could destroy the evidence. This an impunity of the highest order.

The justice department should not have killed Freddie and should have used him to get more information about the incidence. Killing him was like adding salt to the wound that was already existing in the hearts of the public. This is because, even after the media brought the truth to the limelight, the agency did not bother to respond to the allegations and just kept mum and continued with their corrupt ways of working. This showed how much they devalue the residents and were not after serving them but benefiting themselves through such corrupt tendencies.

The agency involved, in this case, was the Department of Justice, and the only communication they made was about the homicidal act of killing Walter and taking Freddie in custody as the prime suspect.

After this people got reports that Freddie has died which was unusual. Following the many instances of misconduct that had happened the public were suspicious of him having to be killed brutally by the police. The report that Freddie Gray had died stirred up painful emotions in the public and it only worsened the condition that was already there. This is because, the people of Baltimore had experienced police brutality before and they knew it was the order of the day. Therefore, the report added more insult to them and was the worst ever to have been reported.

The public responded to the report by taking to the streets and swearing that they would not believe any information from the agency anymore. This communication was ineffective since it did not have any details of whatever killed him but was only stating about the death. The communication could have been more efficient if the agency had produced an excellent report and evidence that the death resulted from an inevitable occurrence such as illness. This if it were to be accompanied by genuine supporting documents and communicated well, then the response of the public and the media would have been different from what was witnessed.

Freddie, having been a man and not a man was bound to stand on his ground and prove his innocence before the court. This is one factor that the brutal police considered when killing him. Was the case involving a woman, then the case would have been different. This is because, the police know that women are weak and get terrified by small things such as beatings and threats.

Therefore, the gender of the suspect, being male contributed to the action that the agency took. The agency did not take the initiative to employ any conflict management the community level but instead used threats and police officers used tear gas to disperse the demonstrating public. This was a very poor way of responding to the public and they could have sought to solve the public’s grievances other than threatening them.

The public and the media have a very negative expectation from the agency in the future. The reason being that the agency did not take the initiative of setting precedents for future expectations. Therefore, the public are living in fear of another tragedy happening as a result of the agency’s impunity actions and the media on the other hand are eagerly waiting for another scandal to happen so that they can publish and continue proving to the public how brutal and corrupt the agency is. All this has resulted from the negative response that the public receive from the agency when they try to cry for their rights. The agency can now look and see how their arrogance has costed them the lack of trust by the people they are serving. As much as the agency will pretend not to feel the pinch, with time they will have to change the way they handle their job and the resident’s lives.

If I were in a position to develop a communications strategy, I would have put into practice the techniques of crucial conversations. This is because, this was a very sensitive matter that required proper understanding and effective communication. Therefore, I would use strategies such as ensuring I hold a conversation with the agency so as to get the true matter of the story. By so doing the agency would get the appropriate way of communicating with the public since I would give them the appropriate advice according to the weight of the scandal. This would ensure the public receive the news from a calm and composed professional who is out to present the information as it is without painting a bad picture of the agency or the media. There would be no blame game and everyone would be contented with the information.

I would also ensure I have mastered the story, explored the path of the agency and shared my ideas with the agency without any fear or hiding anything. This would enable the agency to open up also and share their ideas too since they would feel confident about the person representing them. More so, I would make a point of talking to the media so as to ensure, any information released to the public is not suggestive of a blame game, but adequately informative. This would in turn ensure that the media presents the right information to the public without provoking them to take to the streets.

A crucial conversation is any conversation where the stakes are high, emotions run strong and opinions vary.  If you can master crucial conversations, rather than fear your tough conversations, you’ll kick-start your career, strengthen your relationships, and improve your health. Most basic techniques used will include face to face communication and dialogue. Face to face communication enhance quick response to emotions that arise and agreements are easily reached. On the other hand dialogues bring negotiations into action where proper and sound agreements are reached. These techniques are thus of great importance in the crucial conversations, Pierce, B. (2014).

In conclusion, communication concerning criminal justice has been highly ineffective and should be addressed with immediate effect. This will put an end to the continuing police brutality and corruption as well as citizens crying every day in the streets. It is upon the criminal justice agencies and the media to strategize ways in which communication can be effective so as to avoid these misunderstanding and wrangles witnessed on a daily basis. The governments should come up with a plan of how ineffective justice agencies should be disciplined so that they can respect their job and the rights of their residents.





Pierce, B. (2014). Become a coach leader one conversation at a time: Learn to engage in crucial conversations to build loyalty, trust and connection. Canada: Coaching Horizons.


Posted by admin at July 7, 2015

Category: Uncategorized


The global consumption of petroleum products has been on the rise with industrialization and globalization over the years. According to de Klerk, (2011)the world requires new productions in every three to four years that are equivalent to that of Saudi Arabia in order to maintain the ever growing supply. New discoveries are not proportional to consumption since 1986. The rate of production is falling at four percent per annum. This paper looks at Fischer-Tropsch technology which has been used in the creation of manufactured petroleum looking at its benefits, creation process and its applicability into the world economy.

Gas Oxidation Conversion


The Fischer-Tropsch is a catalyzed compound reaction at high pressure and temperatures in which hydrogen and carbon monoxide are changed over into fluid hydrocarbon of different structures. Average impetuses utilized are in view of cobalt and iron. The key motivation behind this procedure is to create a manufactured petroleum substitute for utilization as engineered oil or as engineered fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch, which is a three-stage blend (slurry process), is one of the most straightforward and most mechanically adaptable choices for handling of related petroleum gas into engine powers and results of the fundamental organic amalgamation is depicted. This process is divided into three main processes Syngas generation, Syngas Conversion, and Hydroprocessing (Klerk, 2011).

A synthesis gas is produced, and contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Natural gas is remade with oxygen, air or coal is turned into gas in the presence of either steam or oxygen.  The gas through FT is changed into liquid hydrocarbons. The process can be manipulated to produce either heavier or lighter hydrocarbons. The outcome, waxy synthetic crude is advanced through the use of hydrocracking and isomerization procedures and divided into middle distillate fuels.

The procedure has the following benefits: a high return of the desired items because of a complete change of syngas; adaptability of the syngas source composition; simplicity of the hardware fabrication. Other benefits include operational unwavering quality of the gear and non-rigid operating conditions; a steady temperature control in the reactor; the absence of grating deterioration; a probability of constant substitution and rehashed recovery of the impetus; and dependable heat evacuation (Klerk, 2011).

The blend of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is called syngas or combination gas. The subsequent hydrocarbon items are refined to deliver the fancied manufactured fuel. The carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is created by incomplete oxidation of wood and coal -based energies (Hoboken, 2007). The utility of the procedure is in its part in creating liquid hydrogen or hydrocarbon from a strong feedstock, for example, coal or carbon-containing residues of different sorts. Non-oxidation pyrolysis of the material generates syngas that can be utilized straightforwardly as a fuel without being taken through Fischer-Tropsch changes. On the off chance that liquid petroleum fuel, ointment, or wax is needed, the Fischer-Tropsch procedure can be connected(Dry, 2002).







Fig: FT  process


Attention to FT technology has been on the rise. This can be attributed to new enhancements to the technology in addition to the understanding that it can be utilized in acquiring significance from stranded natural gas.  In other terms, distantly traced natural gas can be changed to liquid hydrocarbon elements that can easily get into international markets. This is called the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) market or industry. There is another approach of obtaining value from remote natural gas through the exploitation of established liquefied natural gas (LNG).  The LNG industry has seen tremendous growth over the years and it is expected that the GTL industry will grow at a similar or greater pace.  This will occur if it is shown on a commercial level that the economic incentives for utilizing GTL are superior as compared to LNG(van Steen & Claeys, 2008).

GTL process technology has innovative and positive technique for attaining energy diversity. There has been an increased interest in GTL over the past decade whereby researchers and corporations are showing great production economics. GTL fuel and companies are coming up developing countries. FT is a GTL chemical conversion procedure that is utilized to create gasoline and diesel fuel of high quality from coal, biomass feedstock’s in addition to natural gas(van Steen & Claeys, 2008).

The U.S. DOD is the leading world’s purchaser of fuel, devouring 8 billion gallons every year. The DOD and DOE have cooperated with Syntroleum Corporation to manufacture crude fluid F-T fuel from the natural gas and are further processed to make diesel and jet energizes. These very isomerized energizes straight chain branched alkanes and couple of alkenes, however, no aromatics or oxygenates. Syntroleum’s diesel fills have been motor tested and create no particulates or air toxins. Their plane fuel, blended 50:50 with conventional petroleum-inferred fuel, has as of late adequately been tried by the US Air Force B-52 plane with every one of the eight of its motors energized by the mixture(van Steen & Claeys, 2008).











Fig: Historical fuel consumption of the US DOD

Vast techno-economic studies on the deployment of FT technology have been carried in both third party and BP tasks around the world, which have affirmed its suitability to a wide range and size of commercial applications that include:

  • Changingthenaturalgas to fluidfuels as a distinctoptionfortransportationsuch as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by pipeline. Theincorporation of FT, beingprimarilyparticular, can suitvariableplantsizes. It can be worked on a solitaryline of gasgeneration at sizes of up to 20,000 barrelseveryday (BPD) (restrictedjust by thebiggestaccessibleairdetachmentunitsneededforthe syngas area), with moresignificantlimitsachievable with differentparallelcombinationgaslines.
  • Changing syngas from plenteous, remoteorcheapcoal (countingsubversivecoal gasification) into transportfuelsources through various FT lines.
  • Changing biomass to renewable fluidfuelsandenergy at a size of 3-5,000 barrels per day (contingent upon feedstock gathering logistics) utilizingproper gasifiers together with FT process.
  • Improvement of syngas producedusingrefinerybuildups into transportfuelconstituents (Noronha, et al., 2007).

This procedure is exceedingly applicable to aviation energy, where the high energy necessities of effective flight confine the energy storage alternatives accessible to aircraft. Weight is a noteworthy aircraft plan thought. All things considered, once the natural petroleum stores are depleted, engineered fuel will probably turn into the main practical avionics fuel because of its high energy density, not at all like the automobile business, which can utilize heavier battery innovation as energy and weight energy density is not a significant design element (Farias, et al., 2007).

The challenge of Fischer-Tropsch maintainability becomes possibly the most important factor when one imagines a world drained of its natural petroleum holds. In this world, electrical vitality can even now be created by means of non-carbon based sources (e.g. atomic, hydro, wind, sun based, and so forth.) which can be utilized to power the Fischer-Tropsch plants and the gasification or steam changing procedures. The major consumable of the procedure then turns into the beginning carbon sources, otherwise called feedstock. Along these lines, gave that energy is accessible to power the procedure, the manageability of engineered fuel creation through Fischer-Tropsch lays on the accessibility of feedstock(Markvoort, Van Santen, Hilbers, & Hensen, 2012).

The Fischer-Tropsch gas oxidation conversion process improved over decades and is a crucial component of a global energy strategy that will provide the United States with economic opportunities for cleaner and cheaper transport fuels while reducing the impact of human activity on our shared environment. Our research will describe the process of the gas oxidation conversion, operations and developments around the world and how this type of energy will benefit our global energy needs (Biello, 2015).

FT hydrocarbons have an array of benefits as compared to crude oil when it comes to the production of fuel such as absence of substances such as sulphur and nitrogen in addition to heavy metal contamination. FT has hydrocarbons have low aromatic element. Linear olefins that are necessary in the chemical industry can be created by the FT process or through dehydrogenation of paraffinic cuts(Zhang, Kang, & Wang, 2010).

FT plants have been a source de-carbonized power in the US substituting fossil fuels reducing the emission that come from stand-alone fossil fuels. Politically, FT has reinforced the operations of US department of defense. For instance, the fuel has as of late effectively been tried by the US Air Force B-52 planes with every one of the eight of its motors energized by the mixture (Biello, 2015). Environmentally, the process has also reduced the use of pollution fuels that are currently used in most parts of the world.


With the ever increasing growth on international fuel consumption and the ever depleting non-renewable natural resources, it is clear that a time is coming when fuel will be a preserve of a few. The environmental impact of using petroleum only is far much greater as compared to FT hydrocarbons which are cheaper and more environmental friendly. Much more should be done to increase the penetration of use of FT technology globally. An alternative source of fuel is important in a world whose fuel consumption is growing by the day while reserves are getting depleted in equal measures.

Political and cultural effects petroleum in America

There are numerous variables that impact on the formulation of United States energy policy making strategies.  In this research study, it lays out an exhaustive depiction of the organizations that shape policies for US towards Central Asia generally. Furthermore, this section investigates the global situation, which has made the Federal Bureaucracy, the United States Congress, as well as other Interest Groups that constitute the energy policy. Raw petroleum has had significant effects on the world civilization than any natural resources in history. Oil has turned into an exceptionally unequivocal component in defining the politics, and diplomacy of states. The latter is a fact, adumbrated in public lectures known as ‘Oil in World Politics’ presented by a previous secretary of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), when he attested that everywhere throughout the world, the lives of individuals are influenced and the predetermination of countries are controlled by the aftereffect of oil exploration. (International Energy Agency, & SourceOECD, 2003)

Oil keeps the elements of the industrialized nations working and gives the incomes, which empower oil exporters to execute ambitions of national and financial development plans. The advancement would be hindered and life itself would be unbearably difficult to live in if the world is denied of oil. That is the reason oil has turned into the concern for governments, a crucial element of their political and a significant elements in the political as well as diplomatic methods. Subsequently there is a concern about the volatility of prices for raw petroleum that could bring about the increase in food prices. (Bloomberg, 2011). All through the 1980s before US encountered a noteworthy sorting out procedure, figuring out who ought to be engaged in energy policy making and designing what the hierarchical game plans for citizens would be. (United States, 1930) However, by 1985 the President of the time and the Congress had the capacity to achieve compromises on the fundamental issues confronting them following the start of the energy crisis. Having established decisions regarding these fundamental issues, the establishment of a steady national energy strategy framework gave off an impression of being set up. The simple policy framework that was set up by 1980 gave the structure some importance to oversee both the supply and demand for energy and in developing newer resources. (Darity, 2008)

It is essential to understand how the policy influenced by the Congress, Bureaucracy and interest groups would be of essence before going into the definite concentration on the role played by ‘iron triangle’ particularly towards Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The decision-making aspect in Congress where the formulation of the law is done contrasts from that in bureaucracy, where it is executed. Indeed, the setting of an institution significantly impacts the approach outcome. First, in the case of not being sovereign, consideration for Congress is inevitable in the formulation of policies for national energy. The president has the power to oppose or mandate energy programs though he is normally checked by the Congress. Thus, the congress can enact on energy policy and raise the needed resources to underwrite it. The freedom accorded to the president to act autonomously of congress on energy issues is constrained seriously by law, custom or political circumstances. The formulation of Policies may be done by judges or managers by simply translating or executing a congressional enactment. However, making of policies by them is constrained by congressional rules as well as over shift. (United States, 1930)

Moreover, Congress is portrayed as the house that is divided and authority scattered between the two chambers. The members of the chamber are even torn by clashing claims for local as well as national interests. Despite the fact that congress is divided, it is apparent that there is an opportunity for strategy development on matters of petroleum and gas. In fact, the powers of the congress give it the mandate to be very clear that congress regularly reveals policies paralyzed as opposed to power practiced but rather power dissipated.  The quantity of committees having petroleum energy as the main title increased during the 92nd Congress of 1970. The Senate customarily has fewer committees than the House. Normally, the committees are proposed by the desire of legislators to practice some power over major public matters.

As a result of bureaucracy, it is exceptionally challenging for the president to carry these diverse interests into accord with his own authoritative projects. To attain some success relies on his personality to a more prominent degree. The plans for the authoritative management by the White House are persistently obstructed by the political hindrances. In a bid to unite the bureaucracy, the president should always fight for the contending claims of organizations self-interest and the political pressures upon the agencies from Congress.  The bureaucracy can be characterized as a plurality of institutional interests. They are constantly dynamic in forming the approaches that will be regulated by them. On the other hand, the quantity of interest parties endeavoring to present their will for government is very large. Among thousands of broadly composed interest parties in the United States, a big number is engaged in politics. When politically dynamic state and local groups are composed of the existing various interest parties, it gets to be evident that the parties are pervasive in the US legislative framework. They speak of practically every significant social group with a few cases of government.

The development of new groups is regularly provoked by the ascent of new issues on the legislative plan. Alternately, new issues on the plan usually reflect the developing political impact of new interests. The number of interest groups for national energy approach expanded essentially after the oil shock of 1973. Oil organizations make up the main interest groups regarding energy policy formulation. While conducting an analysis of the role played by oil organizations, it can be concluded that they are assuming the roles of non-governmental bodies. There is an addition of degree of assortment to the global political relationship. In some cases, they make the global relationships a little more complicated which may somehow have been truly amicable. However, the reality is that oil industries are fundamentally economic organizations. One of the qualities of the economic performers is that in as much as they can work sensibly well; they essentially acknowledge the aspects of the business as usual. There is no industry that can relinquish its profits for the purpose of political standards. Additionally, none of the oil business can turn down the possibility of creating essential new deposits. Obviously organizations must make a choice between conceivable endeavors. The political atmosphere of the nations in which these ventures are is the only of the components considered. The political strategies accessible to organizations for obtaining access to viable markets are limited. (International Energy Agency, & SourceOECD, 2003)

Due to the sheer size of the America’s market and the way that there was an oil industry already existing in America implied that the American oil organizations had no option but to assume a dominant role. As noted by analysts US does not have a history of noteworthy engagement with the Asian Region before 1990. Indeed due to the discovery of energy resources at the Caspian Sea made the area imperative for the America’s foreign policy.

Impacts of global politics

Over the previous century, present day society has built up the unquenchable desire for oil and follows 100 years of research and experimentation with still no dependable substitution. Oil is Power! It is not just energy as perceived by many. Here, power means being an essential figure in the process of affirming and keeping up political predominance and control. Oil is important for growing food, building infrastructure, advancing technological innovation, manufacture of products and transporting them to market. It greases up the systems of both national and international politics. The individuals, who can reliably get their hands on the most oil, at the best costs, definitely rule! What makes oil so exceedingly profitable that people, organizations, and sovereign states would really be willing to go to war if important, with a specific end goal, to safeguard or fight to win. First and foremost, Oil is Universal in that it is a staple component of exceptional human presence! It assumes a noteworthy role in for all intents and purposes every part of our lives from innovations to the very businesses and foods fundamental for human existence.

Secondly, Oil is a unique product.  While there could be different options for energy supply accessible for industrial undertakings, for example, the creation of electricity, there is presently no sensible substitute for oil concerning transportation. Thirdly, Oil is a rare commodity to find.  According to scientist’s calculations, oil is a dynamically depleting fuel that is vanishing at an exponentially disturbing rate. Though there is still an undetermined number of rich, undiscovered oil stores left to be found the world over, sensible contentions will proceed as to exactly how rapidly the world’s oil supply may run out. However, even amongst the most hopeful or otherwise prognosticators, there is basically no argument that there is at present less oil accessible to us than there was only half a decade back. . (United States, 2004)

Recent years around the 1900s, coal represented about 55 percent of the whole world’s energy utilization while petroleum and natural gasses contribute to about 3 percent of the world’s energy. After one century, coal accounted for just 25 percent of the planet’s energy while at the same time natural gas rose to 23 percent with oil ruling at below 40 percent. In 2000, the demanding oil was more or less 75 million barrels every day. In less than ten years later, the International Energy Agency (IEA) now ascertains that our worldwide hunger for crude petroleum will be double by the year 2030. Planes and vehicles all depend on oil. Whether it’s driving the children to school, haul for foodstuff and products to markets or fueling a warship, tank, rocket launcher or fighter jet all in the battle zones. The same rule applies, those who have oil usually succeed and the individuals, who don’t, lose! So there is nothing unexpected exactly how much global, geopolitical concern and conflicts could emerge in regards to oil and the organizations that supply it around the world. Throughout the years there has been witnessed various rows being raised on the global scene, some just growing into showdowns controlled by ‘quid pro quo’ understandings while others have prompted boycotts, United Nations reprimands and sometimes intrusions and full-scale wars!

Cultural effects

According to the Effects of Oil on Cultures special issue in the ‘Journal of American Studies’ follows the expansive field of social representations and typical structures that have come to design around the fugacious products of petroleum in the 150 years since the initiation of the U.S. petroleum industry. Running from Hollywood film and corporate workmanship to World War II propaganda and aquarium shows, the oil culture representations as examined indicating the complicated role played by American society in setting up and challenging oil’s status (Darity, 2008). It is also the basic product supporting present day financial expansion and a crucial force for the social and political life. By tending to the ascent of oil as a social power, this issue expects to fill a critical gap in oil grants and to intercede in what has turned into an epochal and very charged moments within the historical records of petrol-capitalism. (Darity, 2008)

During the reign of the industry’s sesquicentennial and the deep watered Horizon oil spillage, it’s a very devastating ecological catastrophe of the twenty-first century to date. It could be possibly the right time to track and reconsider the practices, developments, and conflicts that made the predominance of oil capitalism conceivable. Though much work is being committed to track the materials as well as political procedures that energized the development of the petroleum business, generally little grant has endeavored to account for the myriad methods in which oil saturates America aesthetic practices, social structures, and public discourses. Investigating the fruitful roles of oil in the cultural creative energy, the research shows new strategies for comprehension of a focal paradox of oil history: how characteristic material comprehended from its start to be nonrenewable and was dangerously grasped through the span of the nineteenth and twentieth century and is a reality of regular American experience. In the meantime, by dissecting the ambiguities, loopholes, and inconsistencies that have caused the cultural representations of oil, the benefactors uncover a background marked by struggles and uncertainty which could illuminate continuous endeavors to ‘see past’ oil capitalism and imagine alternate methods of energy creation and utilization.

Also, as oil costs rise, so does the interest in biofuels, which are the main non-fossil fluid power ready to supplant petroleum items in existing combustion motors and engine vehicles. This is despite biofuels being frequently produced using corn and other horticultural items. Even as demand for these alternate means of fuel expands, the product costs are constrained upwards, making food not easily affordable. Export driven agricultural techniques likewise boost the world’s inevitability to high oil costs. The majority of donor organizations have energized the less industrialized nations to concentrate on the production of cash crops which is at the expense of the staple food for local use. Therefore, individuals in these nations are compelled to depend progressively on imports of regularly subsidized cereals and those supported food aided programs. On the other hand, the increasing cost of transport adds to rising costs of foods imports, hence making them not easily available. The cost of fuel is a representation of as much as 60 percent of aggregate shipping operations expense. Since mid-2007 to 2008, due to increased fuel costs, equally there was an increase in transportation cost for food aid having risen to about $50 in every ton. According to the United States Agency for International Development, this represented about a 30 percent in total increase.

Ecological Pollution

Contaminants derived from Petroleum usually constitute a standout amongst the most predominant sources of ecological degradation in the industrialized world. With the high amount of concentration, the hydrocarbon atoms that make up unrefined petroleum and petroleum items are very harmful to numerous organic entities, including people. Petroleum likewise has trace substances of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are very dangerous and reacts with the environment to create auxiliary toxic chemicals (United States, 2004). The dominance levels of products derived from petroleum, in America and the global economy, facilitates the conditions for conveying a lot of these poisons into populated zones and biological communities around the world. (United States, 2004)

Oil spill

Maybe the most noticeable source of petroleum pollution can be attributed to oil tanker accidents such as that in Prince William in Alaska and was known as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. The latter hit headlines with crippling pictures of oil coated shorelines and dead birds and ocean creatures. In most cases, such spills happen amid the transportation of unrefined petroleum to importing countries. Unrefined petroleum goes for long distances by either sea tanker or pipeline, and both techniques are inclined to accidents. Oil might likewise spill at the site where it is extracted as on blowout like the Ixtoc well in 1979. A blowout is one of the significant dangers of drilling for oil and could happen when gas traps in the deposit and at high pressures that oil all of sudden ejects out of the drill shaft in a spring. (Alaska Geographic Society, 1993)

The accidents from tankers, pipelines, and wells discharge gigantic amounts of petroleum into zones and marine environments in a concentrated form. The environmental effects of vast spills like these have just been considered for few cases, and it is impractical to say which have been the most naturally harm-causing accidents as recorded in history. An expansive oil spill in the open seas may do less harm to marine life forms than little spill close to the shoreline. For instance, the Exxon Valdez catastrophe made an immense environment calamity, not because of the amount of oil spilt but due to the measure of shoreline affected, sensitivity of creatures in the zone, and the physical qualities of Prince William, that served to intensify the harm (Alaska Geographic Society, 1993). The Exxon Valdez disaster was the beginning of the most extensive and expensive cleanup endeavor ever done and pointed out more public oil mishaps than any other time in history. There has been ongoing scientific research on the impacts of oil in Prince William Sound and consequently the number of tanker accidents globally has diminished altogether since the season of the Valdez spill. This is because of stricter regulations and such obliged changes in the design of vessels as double construction. (Alaska Geographic Society, 1993)




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Posted by admin at December 10, 2014

Category: Uncategorized

The Impact of Culture on Globalization


An insightful examination of global playground lists down seven key factors for increased globalization. These include developments in technology, liberalization of cross border trade and resource movements, development of services that support international business, and growing consumer pressures. Other factors include increased global competition, changing political situations and expanded cross-national cooperation. There is evidence that globalization has an immense impact on culture and vice-versa (Daniels, John, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2011).
The integration of people, products, ideas and other aspects of culture has had a tremendous effect on organizational success. According to Daniel et al, globalization has a profound effect on the environment, culture and political systems (Daniels, John, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2011). The wave of globalization has been accelerated especially on policies that are focused on faster exchange of ideas, technological improvements and elimination of trade and cultural barriers. It is worth noting that as globalization becomes more prominent, the impact of culture becomes more significant making cultural awareness pivotal to organizational success. In addition, knowledge on the impact of culture on globalization is not only important to students, but is a critical success factor in the management of multinational organizations.
This implies that organizations that acquire the capacity to seamlessly integrate cultural values with forces of globalization are likely to attain competitive advantage. Effective cross border movement of technology, services, goods and ideas requires a better understanding of cultural values of both countries. This is more important for multinational national organizations because of their involvement in cross-border trade that transcends across different cultures. To achieve a comprehensive analysis of this topic, this research will focus on Home Furnishing Company because of two reasons. First, the concepts of culture and globalization apply to this organization, especially in its push to gain entry into new markets. Second, I understand the working culture and environment of the organization because I am a team member of its sales management division.
Background and Significance
Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) need to only understand their objective or motive which will influence the decision to invest in a country, but also the cross-cultural differences in their intended markets to make seamless entry into those markets. Kumaravadivelu explains that most of MNCs have multi objectives to make investment in host countries, such as reducing production costs by cheap labor and cheap cost of transportation, advantages of tax benefits, gain technological knowhow and benefit from government policy (Kumaravadivelu, 2008). In the examination of globalization Jeffus sought to delineate underlying issues behind the extent to which organizations participate in a host country (Jeffus, 2007).
Penetrating into overseas market is an uphill task for international business organizations. This is because of the diversity of our social-cultural differences, which greatly define tastes and preferences. Home Furnishing is one organization that has faced the hurdles of international marketing for instance, the penetration of in European market. Most firms assume the penetration in an overseas market is an uphill task; however, at times that is not always the case. Though people speak different language and have different cultural orientation, this does not mean they will not have similar tastes and preferences.
Cross-cultural differences not only have impacts on international trade but also to the domestic market. According to Tian, the changed world makes marketing a cross-cultural process that requires marketers must be well informed with cultural differences nationally, locally, and ethnically to be the winner in the 21st Century market (Tian, 2009). Home Furnishing must realize that venturing into the European market means that they are moving from one culture to another. Therefore studying the market differences in cultural desires of these two groups would positively influence their organization learning perspectives in Europe.
Most scholarly studies allude to the fact that there is need to develop strategic management systems that have positive learning outcomes. Analyzed from the perspectives of cross-cultural management, this report will take case of market in Europe and the corresponding business globalization concepts for consideration by the company. To achieve this intended comparison, the paper will employ descriptive research method via literature review to present workable recommendations.
The objective of this report is to analyse the feasibility of venturing into European market through Germany by a strategic alliance and propose effective approaches in addressing both trust and cultural differences issues. The conventional organization learning mainly applies to Western corporation and because European market attracts MNCs because of its large market, it would be significant that the learning process for local employees is highlighted to existing and potential investors. Another factor that the paper will highlight is the cultural practices of Germans in order to understand how diverse the European market works. Further, recommendations will be presented in this after examining the cultural issues and effective strategies in minimizing conflict between culture and forces of globalization.
Home Furnishing is a horizontal organization, with a less-defined chain of command. The employees play important roles on the way in which decisions are made. This implies that the organization adopts a team work approach in which employees work in teams, with everyone on the team having input. As a sales team leader, I am responsible for nurturing a team spirit and ensuring that specific objectives of the team are achieved and overall sales team goals are met.
A review of the course study materials reveals that key concepts learned widely apply to the organization. These include the impact of globalization on culture, benefits of globalization and the challenges of conflict between forces of culture and globalization. The numerous opportunities presented by globalization appear to tap into a natural sense of entrepreneurialism that is present to a surprisingly large extent in countries that have never before been viewed as being free-market capitalist. The first concept learnt from the lesson materials is the impact of culture and globalization in business environment. This is because it is through the adoption of trade reforms towards more open and free markets that enables these nations to join the emerging global markets and provide businesses with market opportunities in diverse cultural regions. The need to operate within the accepted international rules of trade, adopt supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions and reap from the benefits of regional and international trade agreements constitute some factors have pushed the closed market countries to develop entrepreneurship.
Another relevant concept learned is that business success across diverse cultures has also been equated to benefits of globalization through diversity. Workforce diversity is the interaction among people of different cultures, ethnic groups, gender and age who work together in an organization. The worlds increasing globalization has greatly promoted workforce diversity since people have become part of the worldwide economy with the aim of increasing the level of creativity and to maximizing the profitability of organizations. According to Morgan, diversity is about acknowledging the differences in the way different people approach various issue based on their class, age, gender, cultural background, and race (Morgan, 2006).
Business community and culture have for decades embraced the fact that good business should conform to standard ethics in business management. Appreciating diversity in organizations demand that each individual form a bigger part of the business entity yet they must work together knowing that their objectives and goals are far greater than their differences. It is a major component of business life and forms the very foundation of business stability (Morgan, 2006). Our role in this chain is to facilitate and accelerate the rate at which diversity happen within our businesses. In the cacophony of business management, diversity plays the critical role through which a new organizational paradigm for equality policy-making is anchored. This is because diversity management influences communication cultures, precipitates change, demands the positive contributions of the stakeholders, and determines the levels of productivity and employee satisfaction. A congregation of the above factors is a pointer to organizational success and levels of profitability.
Within the policy of communication, an organization must institute management techniques that have the capacity to overcome cultural and language barriers that constitute the major bottlenecks to effective communication. Ineffective communication results to a state of confusion, lack of employee motivation, lack of employee commitment and the low morale (Morgan, 2006). Work force that comprises of individuals from different backgrounds must coexist in an atmosphere that enhances both respect and understanding. The culture of communication within an organization remains the central factor in determining the levels of work diversity management.
Globalization demands the concept of equality in human resource management and is a pivotal determinant in diversity management and business success. Equality on other had is defined by Kumaravadivelu as “ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favorably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age” (Kumaravadivelu, 2008). Equality policy making therefore ensure that communication culture and models are modeled in a manner that take keen cognizance on the diverse groups within the organization. The common challenge that arises from diversity is that different people within an organization have different backgrounds (Kumaravadivelu, 2008).
Discussion and Implications
This section of the plan will revolve around the need to adapt my brands to meet local and regional culture because of the understanding that effective marketing must not only act as a means of linking items that are part of product line and emphasizes the individuality of product items, but also take cognizance of the cultural values of the intended markets. This emphasis can only be achieved in instances where products items fit into the local or regional culture of the target market.
In addition to the above, the adapting Home Furnishing Brands to fit into the European culture is a competitive advantage that is can be adopted by the firm. In essence, this means that a firm that outperforms the others in the primary goal of performance-profitability-has competitive advantage. Value added competitive advantage arises in instances where competing firms attach strong cognizance to the understanding of local or regional culture before launching their product lines (Kotler and Amstrong, 2007). Companies succeed in branding strategies that their rival because their products are positioned to capitalize on their unique characteristics of a local or regional group and which, in one or more aspects, their rivals find hard to emulate. This competitive advantage gives it a basis for outperforming competitors because of the value that firms are able to present to the customer (Kotler and Keller, 2009). These should define the marketing and commercialization plans of the company.
Despite the understanding that an insightful analysis of organizational behavior is key to the achievement of organizational objectives and attainment of competitive advantage, the case of Home Furnishing reveals the company needs to adopt a number of key issues in organizational behavior. These include emphasis on cross-cultural communication, teamwork, diversity management, and strategic planning. The inability to communicate effectively and efficiently with team members and the team leader negatively influences the achievement of project objectives and may diminish the firm’s capacity to blend itself to the European culture of business management. Effective communication remains the most critical management tool in enhancing cooperation and understanding amongst employees across diverse cultures. The process must therefore encompass effective communication culture that is smooth, clear and devoid of misinterpretations.
Planning involves the creation and implementation of strategies on how to improve the quality and efficiency of work. Proper planning allows for effective time management and saves cost and resources. Firms operate in environments encompassed by high risk and uncertainty and as such need a platform to provide principal rationale for the application of strategic planning and forecasting. Furthermore, success in business is primarily depends on forecasting accuracy in planning. Firms must be equipped with the capacity to anticipate and adapt appropriately to environmental changes to hold sustainable advantage over their competitors. These challenges are more profound when firms are gearing towards gaining entry into a new cultural set-up.
Furthermore, strategic adaptation remains the key to achieving organizational efficiency and maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage over competitors. This is because it encompasses formal planning that provides benefits that ultimately produce economic value, ensures the capability for business planning and management and enhances strategic focus and risk management (Fink, Neyer & Kölling, 2006).
A number of research works have paid cognizance to the need for linking measures to actions as a key attribute of good performance in organizations. The quantified objectives are the attributes of the strategic planning process and are best aligned together. The translation of the activities into action plans for the individuals or groups also needs are aligned to the strategic intents. This is because the alignment of the activities and plans has been demonstrated as resulting in improved organizational performance. According to Morgan, tracking the critical process indicators along with the outcome measurements provides individuals assigned with some decision-making space that is ideal for improving performance (Morgan, 2006). Thus, although the outcome measures for objectives are ideally predetermined during the strategic planning process, the indicator metrics should be structured around the action plans developed for the individuals and groups towards the attainment of the envisaged objectives.
However, it is discerned from the report that there is need to integrate strategic planning with a greater focus on cultural knowledge in the entire internationalization process. Project managers and team members must read from the same script and adopt collective approach to managing cultural divisions. Firms operate in environments encompassed by high risk and uncertainty and as such need a platform to provide principal rationale for the application of strategic planning and forecasting. Furthermore, success in business and project management primarily depends on forecasting accuracy in planning of a firm. Firms must be equipped with the capacity to anticipate and adapt appropriately to environmental changes to hold sustainable advantage over their competitors.
Furthermore, the organization must take cognizance of diversity. Workforce diversity is the interaction among people of different cultures, ethnic groups, gender, and age who work together in an organization. The worlds increasing globalization has greatly promoted workforce diversity since people have become part of the worldwide economy with the aim of increasing the level of creativity and to maximizing the profitability of organizations. The psychological understanding of different personality traits has the capacity to affect the workplace because other employees may perceive some differences as negative and thus cause discomfort to others.

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This would not only affect the spiritual culture of the organization but may also affect the primary collective responsibility and team work within the organization. In the understanding that appreciating diversity in organizations demand that each individual form a bigger part of the business entity yet they must work together knowing that their objectives and goals are far greater than their differences, it is important to ensure diverse cultures are promoted. It is a major component of an organization’s life and forms the very foundation of organization’s stability. This issue becomes more poignant in the analysis of the company’s case especially when viewed from the perspective of interpersonal relationship among the team members in its resolve to venture into the European market.
Potential Risk Factors for Consideration
Learning at corporate level can be either an individual process or a collective effort initiated by the management. Knowledge gained is a product of organization learning and diverse social environment that brings different people to work in one place offers the best opportunity for cultural integration. Employment of a multi-cultural workforce of the company in the development of the project will definitely call for a number of initiatives. The management of cultural differences will be a critical positioning tool that bestows consumer loyalty and oils their economic mantle.
Technology and Competition
Modern day business operations rely on information and communication technology and this is the main driving reason behind home furnishing company push to forge an alliance with an established firm in the international markets. The firm must harness ICT as a resource for driving strategic management. Online social networking industry has undergone transformation for over 80 years following scientific and theoretical frameworks via which community interact and connect in relationships. In modern business environment, business leaders consider ways through which they can add value and make more profit by analyzing these relationships. Organization learning should recognize the power of technology in product improvement and enhancement of information sharing and expanding market avenues. Despite the fact that there is stiff competition posed by high end competitors, the strength of this business venture lies on the correct identification of the market segment.
This analysis provides meaningful insights on the challenges as well as strategies the home furnishing company must examine and adopt to not only gain entry into foreign markets, but also develop an effective strategy in gaining competitive advantage in the new markets. It is noted that strategy selection forms a key factor gaining entry into new markets.
Recommendation 1: Take Cognizance of the Forces of External Environment
The ability to synthesize the forces of external environment in a new cultural set-up is a determiner of a business entity’s ability to integrate itself into the new culture. The selection of the strategy should be followed by a clear delineation of the cultural vision. Furthermore, there is need to develop flexible structures in responding and adopting change that takes closer looks into the cultural aspects. Leaders of change must have the capacity to develop key tactics in dissipating resistance to change. The case provide valuable lessons on the need be flexible to external forces on the execution and implementation of an expansion plan. This forms an important strategy in anchoring new approaches in a new culture.
Recommendation 2: Pay Close Attention to Cross-Cultural Management
The result of the report proposes that company must pay cognizance to key issues in internationalization issues such as trust and cross-cultural management in order to reap a bundle of technological evidence from the envisaged alliance. These are key issues that must be entrenched in the project to ensure delivery and achievement of the set objectives. However, these key issues must blend seamlessly with each other and aim towards the pursuit of excellence by developing key skills and traits among team members. These integrate a set of practices aimed at the promotion of improvement and long-term planning. The project philosophy must center on developing strategic intents, and thus entails greater team involvement to facilitate teamwork.
Recommendation 3: Focus on Organizational Learning
Conventional organization learning is a process whose proper organization and management brings service quality in business entities. Home Furnishing must distinguish the main components of organization learning because it must identify specific sources of operational hitches. Most organizations identify the organization, the people, and knowledge as the main components of organization learning.
Organization learning should be tied to structural organization framework and in order to succeed as a business. The cases of decentralized organization structure require a well-laid communication channel to convey message from top to bottom. Horizontal communication system requires flat communication system to necessitate passage of information directly from CEOs to junior staffs and vice versa.
Recommendation 4: Be Sensitive to the Complex Local Context
Effective approach to entry in a new cultural environment involves the gaining of the knowledge of the social phenomena by appropriately paying attention to the socially constructed meanings that businesses face in the context of its operations. Success in cross-cultural operations involves being sensitive to the challenges of the local environment, considering the cultures and roles of close associates and serving their needs, while at the same time having determination to make a positive contribution. This means that to effectively achieve the intended goals and purposes, there is the need to fully come to the realities of the existing local context.